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Excel IF Function

Excel IF function

The IF function can perform a logical test and return one value for a TRUE result, and another for a FALSE result. For example, to "pass" scores above 70: =IF(A1>70,"Pass","Fail"). More than one condition can be tested by nesting IF functions. The IF function can be combined with logical functions like AND and OR.

Test for a specific condition
Return value 
The values you supply for TRUE or FALSE
=IF (logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
  • logical_test - A value or logical expression that can be evaluated as TRUE or FALSE.
  • value_if_true - [optional] The value to return when logical_test evaluates to TRUE.
  • value_if_false - [optional] The value to return when logical_test evaluates to FALSE.
Usage notes 

Use the IF function to test for or evaluate certain conditions, and then react differently depending on whether the test was TRUE or FALSE.

In the example shown, we want to assign either "Pass" or "Fail" based on a test score. A passing score is 70 or higher. The formula in D6, copied down, is:


Translation: If the value in C6 is greater than or equal to 70, return "Pass". Otherwise, return "Fail".

The logical flow this formula could be reversed. A formula with the same result could be written like this:


Translation: If the value in C6 is less than 70, return "Fail". Otherwise, return "Pass".

Either formula above, when copied down the column, will test every score and return the correct result.

Note: If you are new to the idea of formula criteria, this article shows many examples.

Nested IF statements

The IF function can be "nested". A "nested IF" refers to a formula where at least one IF function is nested inside another in order to test for more conditions and return more possible results. Each IF statement needs to be carefully "nested" inside another so that the logic is correct.

For example, the following formula can be used to assign an grade rather than a pass / fail result:


Up to 64 IF functions can be nested. However, in general, you should consider other functions, like VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP for more complex scenarios, because they can handle more conditions in much more streamlined fashion.

Logical operators

When you are constructing a test with IF, you can use any of the following logical operators:

Comparison operator Meaning Example
= equal to A1=D1
> greater than A1>D1
>= greater than or equal to A1>=D1
< less than A1
<= less than or equal to A1<=D1
<> not equal to A1<>D1

More information


  • If any of the arguments to IF are supplied as arrays, the IF function will evaluate every element of the array.
  • To count things conditionally, use the COUNTIF or the COUNTIFS functions.
  • To sum things conditionally, use the SUMIF or the SUMIFS functions.

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