To get the position of the last match (i.e. last occurrence) of a lookup value, you can use an array formula based on the IF, ROW, INDEX, MATCH, and MAX functions. In the example shown, the formula in H6 is:
{=MAX(IF(...

To get the larger, or greater, of two values, you can use the MAX function. In the example shown, the formula in D5 is:
=MAX(B5,C5)
How this formula works
The MAX function is fully automatic – it returns the largest...

To get "first in, last out" times from timesheet data, you can use the MAXIFS and MINIFS functions, or an array formula as described below. In the example shown, the formula in H6 is:
=MINIFS(times,names,H5,actions,...

To find the maximum value on a given weekday (i.e. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) you can use a simple array formula based on the MAX, IF, and TEXT functions. In the example shown, the formula in cell F5 is:
=MAX(...

To calculate the longest winning streak, you can use an array formula based on the frequency function.
Note: FREQUENCY must be entered as an array formula using Control + Shift + Enter
How this formula works
This is...

To get the maximum value in a data set based on more than one criteria, you can use an array formula based on the MAX and IF functions. In the example shown, the formula in I6 is:
{=MAX(IF(color=G6,IF(item=H6,price...

To look up the maximum value in a range based on specific critieria, you can use a basic array formula based on the IF function.
Example data and problem
In the example shown, we have almost 10,000 rows of data. The...

To count consecutive monthly orders, you can use an array formula based on the FREQUENCY function, with help from COLUMN and MAX.
In the example shown, the formula in I5 is:
{=MAX(FREQUENCY(IF(C5:H5>0,COLUMN(C5:H5...

To calculate gas (MPG) based on odometer readings you can build a table with a few simple formulas. In the example shown, the formulas in E5 and F5 are:
=[@Mileage]-SUM(C4) // E5 calculate mileage
=[@Distance]/[@...

To get the max of every nth column, you can use an array formula based on the MAX, MOD, and COLUMN functions. In the example shown, the formula in M5 is:
=MAX(IF(MOD(COLUMN(B5:K5)-COLUMN(B5)+1,L5)=0,B5:K5))
Note:...

To calculate the number of days that overlap in two date ranges, you can use basic date arithmetic, together with the the MIN and MAX functions.
In the example shown, the formula in D6 is:
=MAX(MIN(end,C6)-MAX(start,...

Note: these is an experimental formula that uses a hard coded array constant, set down here for reference and comment. Casually tested only, so take care if you use or adapt.
Sometimes you encounter data that mixes...

To find the longest string (name, word, etc.) in a column, you can use an array formula based on INDEX and MATCH, together with LEN and MAX. In the example shown, the formula in F6 is:
{=INDEX(names,MATCH(MAX(LEN(...

To test if a numeric value falls between two numbers, you can use the AND function with two logical tests. In the example shown, the formula in E5 is:
=AND(D5>MIN(B5,C5),D5<MAX(B5,C5))
How this formula works...

To lookup information related to the maximum value in a range, you can use a formula that combines the MAX, INDEX, and MATCH functions. In the example shown, the formula in I8 is:
=INDEX(F3:F11,MATCH(MAX(C3:C11),C3:...