To find the maximum value on a given weekday (i.e. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) you can use a simple array formula based on the MAX, IF, and TEXT functions. In the example shown, the formula in cell F5 is:
=MAX(...

To get the position of the maximum value in a range (i.e. a list, table, or row), you can use the MAX function together with the MATCH function.
In the example shown, the formula in I5 is:
=MATCH(MAX(C3:C11),C3:C11,0...

To get the max of every nth column, you can use an array formula based on the MAX, MOD, and COLUMN functions. In the example shown, the formula in M5 is:
=MAX(IF(MOD(COLUMN(B5:K5)-COLUMN(B5)+1,L5)=0,B5:K5))
Note:...

To retrieve the max value in a set of data, where the column is variable, you can use INDEX and MATCH together with the MAX function. In the example shown the formula in J5 is:
=MAX(INDEX(data,0,MATCH(J4,header,0)))...

To find the maximum value in a given month, you can use the MAXIFS function or one of the other alternatives below. In the example shown, the formula in G5 is:
=MAXIFS(sales,dates,">="&G4,dates,...

To get the maximum value in a data set based on more than one criteria, you can use an array formula based on the MAX and IF functions. In the example shown, the formula in I6 is:
{=MAX(IF(color=G6,IF(item=H6,price...

To calculate the number of days that overlap in two date ranges, you can use basic date arithmetic, together with the the MIN and MAX functions.
In the example shown, the formula in D6 is:
=MAX(MIN(end,C6)-MAX(start,...

To calculate the longest winning streak, you can use an array formula based on the frequency function.
Note: FREQUENCY must be entered as an array formula using Control + Shift + Enter
How this formula works
This is...

To get the position of the last match (i.e. last occurrence) of a lookup value, you can use an array formula based on the IF, ROW, INDEX, MATCH, and MAX functions. In the example shown, the formula in H6 is:
{=MAX(IF(...

Note: these is an experimental formula that uses a hard coded array constant, set down here for reference and comment. Casually tested only, so take care if you use or adapt.
Sometimes you encounter data that mixes...

To get the latest match in a set of data by date, you can use XLOOKUP in approximate match mode by setting match_mode to -1. In the example shown, the formula in G5, copied down, is:
=XLOOKUP(MAX(date),(item=F5)*date,...

To calculate gas (MPG) based on odometer readings you can build a table with a few simple formulas. In the example shown, the formulas in E5 and F5 are:
=[@Mileage]-SUM(C4) // E5 calculate mileage
=[@Distance]/[@...

To extract a word that contains specific text,you can use a formula based on several functions, including TRIM, LEFT, SUBSTITUTE, MID, MAX, and REPT. You can use this formula to extract things like email addresses, or...

To test if a numeric value falls between two numbers, you can use the AND function with two logical tests. In the example shown, the formula in E5 is:
=AND(D5>MIN(B5,C5),D5<MAX(B5,C5))
How this formula works...

To force negative numbers to zero without affecting positive numbers, you can use a formula based on the MAX function. In the example shown, the formula in D5 is:
=MAX(C5-B5,0)
How this formula works
This formula...