## Explanation

The COUNTIF functions checks values in a range against criteria. Often, only one criteria is supplied, but in this case we supply more than one criteria.

For range, we give COUNTIF the named range **list1** (B6:B11), and for criteria, we provide the named range **list2** (F6:F8).

Because we give COUNTIF more than one criteria, we get more than one result in a result array that looks like this: {2;1;0}

We want to count only values that are missing, which by definition have a count of zero, so we convert these values to TRUE and FALSE with the "=0" statement, which yields: {FALSE;FALSE;TRUE}

Then we force the TRUE FALSE values to 1s and 0s with the double-negative operator (--), which produces: {0;0;1}

Finally, we use SUMPRODUCT to add up the items in the array and return a total count of missing values.

### Alternative with MATCH

If you prefer more literal formulas, you can use the formula below, based on MATCH, which literally counts values that are "missing" using the ISNA function:

```
=SUMPRODUCT(--ISNA(MATCH(list2,list1,0)))
```