## Explanation

In this example, the goal is to count test scores in column C that are less than 75. The simplest way to do this is with the COUNTIF function, which takes two arguments, *range* and *criteria*:

```
=COUNTIF(range,criteria)
```

The test scores in the range C5:C16 and we want to count scores *less than 75*, so we configure COUNTIF like this:

```
=COUNTIF(C5:C16,"<75") // returns 1
```

Since there is only one score in C5:C16 that is less than 75, COUNTIF returns 1 as a result. Notice that *criteria* is given as a text value in double quotes (""). This is a requirement of the COUNTIF function which is in a group of eight functions that use a special syntax for *criteria*. In this syntax, logical operators are joined with numeric values and provided as text.

### Less than or equal to

To count cells that are *less than or equal to*, adjust the formula to use "<=" instead of "<". In the example shown, the formula in F6 is:

```
=COUNTIF(C5:C16,"<=75") // returns 2
```

Here, COUNTIF returns 2 since there are two scores in C5:C16 less than or equal to 75.

### Value in another cell

To adjust the formula to use a value in another cell as part of the criteria, you can concatenate the logical operator to the cell reference with the ampersand (&) operator like this:

```
=COUNTIF(range,"<"&A1)
```

For example, with 75 in cell A1, the criteria will be "<=75" after concatenation:

```
=COUNTIF(range,"<="&A1)
=COUNTIF(range,"<=75")
=2
```

The result will again be 2. If the value in A1 is changed to a different number, COUNTIF will return a new result.

### COUNTIFS function

The COUNTIFs function is designed to handle multiple criteria, but can be used just like the COUNTIF function in this example:

```
=COUNTIFS(C5:C16,"<75") // returns 1
=COUNTIFS(C5:C16,"<=75") // returns 2
```