## Explanation

In this example, the goal is to count test scores in column C that are greater than 90. The simplest way to do this is with the COUNTIF function, which takes two arguments, *range* and *criteria*:

```
=COUNTIF(range,criteria)
```

All test scores are in the range C5:C16 and we want to count scores *greater than 90*, so we configure COUNTIF like this:

```
=COUNTIF(C5:C16,">90") // returns 2
```

COUNTIF returns 2, since there are two scores in C5:C16 that are greater than 90. Notice that* criteria* is given as a text value in double quotes (""). This is a requirement of the COUNTIF function which is in a group of eight functions that use a special syntax for *criteria*. In this syntax, logical operators are joined with numeric values and provided as text.

### Greater than or equal to

To count cells that are *greater than or equal to*, adjust the formula to use ">=" instead of ">". In the example shown, the formula in F6 is:

```
=COUNTIF(C5:C16,">=90") // returns 3
```

Here, COUNTIF returns 3, since there are three scores in C5:C16 greater than or equal to 90.

### Value in another cell

To adjust the formula to use a value in another cell as part of the criteria, you can concatenate the logical operator to the cell reference with the ampersand (&) operator like this:

```
=COUNTIF(range,">"&A1)
```

For example, with 90 in cell A1, the criteria will become ">90" after concatenation:

```
=COUNTIF(range,">"&A1)
=COUNTIF(range,">90")
=2
```

The result will again be 2. If the value in A1 is changed to a different number, COUNTIF will return a new result.

### COUNTIFS function

The COUNTIFS function is designed to handle multiple criteria but can be used just like the COUNTIF function in this example:

```
=COUNTIFS(C5:C16,">90") // returns 2
=COUNTIFS(C5:C16,">=90") // returns 3
```