## Explanation

In this example, the goal is to count orders (rows) where the state is Texas ("TX"), the amount is greater than $100, and the month is March. In this case, we can't use COUNTIFS, because COUNTIFs is a range-based function and it won't accept a calculation for a *range *argument, which we need to determine the month. We could optionally add a helper column that uses the MONTH function to extract the month, then use COUNTIFS, but a better option is to use the SUMPRODUCT function with Boolean logic.

### COUNTIFS function

You would think the COUNTIFS function would be the perfect tool for this job, but if we try to use COUNTIFS, we'll run into a problem. The first two conditions are straightforward. We can count orders from Texas ("TX") with amounts greater than $100, like this:

```
=COUNTIFS(E5:E15,"tx",C5:C15,">100") // returns 4
```

COUNTIFS returns 4, since there are 4 orders that meet these conditions. However, when we try to extend the criteria to test for orders in March, we run into a problem. The formula below looks fine, but Excel will not let you enter it:

```
=COUNTIFS(E5:E15,"tx",C5:C15,">100",MONTH(F5:F15),3)
```

Instead, Excel displays the generic "There's a problem with this formula error" message. This happens because COUNTIFS is a range-based function and it won't accept the array returned by the MONTH function above. The SUMPRODUCT function does not have this limitation and is happy to work with ranges *or* arrays.

### SUMPRODUCT function

The SUMPRODUCT function is programmed to handle array operations natively, without requiring Control + Shift + Enter. Its default behavior is to multiply corresponding elements in one or more arrays together, then sum the products. When given a single array, it returns the sum of the elements in the array. In the example shown, the formula in H5 is:

```
=SUMPRODUCT((E5:E15="tx")*(C5:C15>100)*(MONTH(F5:F15)=3))
```

In this example, we are using three logical expressions inside a single array argument, *array1*. This is typical when using SUMPRODUCT to solve a problem like this because it saves steps and provides full control over the logic used to select data. We could place each expression into a separate argument, but then we would need to coerce logical TRUE and FALSE values to 1s and 0s with another operator like the double negative (--). By placing all expressions into one argument, the math operation of multiplication (*) will automatically convert TRUE and FALSE to 1 and 0.

We have three conditions to apply. The first condition is that the order is from Texas ("TX"):

```
E5:E15="tx" // state is "tx"
```

Excel formulas are not case-sensitive, so there is no need to use an uppercase "TX". Because the range E5:E15 contains 11 values, the result is an array that contains 11 TRUE and FALSE values:

```
{TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;TRUE;FALSE;TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;FALSE}
```

The second condition is that the amount is greater than $100:

```
C5:C15>100 // amount > 100
```

This expression also returns 11 results:

```
{TRUE;TRUE;FALSE;TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE}
```

The third condition is that the month is March. To get the month, we use the MONTH function, which returns a number between 1-12 when given a date:

```
MONTH(F5:F15)=3 // month is 3
```

The MONTH function returns an array of 11 month numbers:

```
={2;2;2;3;3;3;3;3;3;4;4}=3
```

And the full expression returns this array:

```
{FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;FALSE;FALSE}
```

All three arrays are multiplied together because all conditions must be TRUE in order to be included in the final count. In Boolean algebra, multiplication (*) corresponds to AND logic and addition (+) corresponds to OR logic. The math operation automatically converts the TRUE and FALSE values to 1s and 0s. You can visualize the arrays inside of SUMPRODUCT like this:

```
=SUMPRODUCT({1;0;0;1;1;0;1;0;0;1;0}*{1;1;0;1;0;0;1;1;1;1;1}*{0;0;0;1;1;1;1;1;1;0;0})
```

After the corresponding values of each array are multiplied together, we have a single array inside the SUMPRODUCT function like this:

```
=SUMPRODUCT({0;0;0;1;0;0;1;0;0;0;0}) // returns 2
```

With only one array to process, SUMPRODUCT sums the array and returns 2 as a final result.

*Note: The SUMPRODUCT function has been traditionally used to solve problems like this because it has always been able to handle array operations natively, without Control + Shift + Enter. In Excel 365 and Excel 2021, arrays are native and you can use the SUM function instead if you prefer.*