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Excel SUBTOTAL Function

Excel SUBTOTAL function

The Excel SUBTOTAL function returns an aggregate result for supplied values. SUBTOTAL can return a SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX, and others (see table below), and SUBTOTAL function can either include or exclude values in hidden rows.

Get a subtotal in a list or database
Return value 
A number representing a specific kind of subtotal
=SUBTOTAL (function_num, ref1, [ref2], ...)
  • function_num - A number that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals within a list. See table below for full list.
  • ref1 - A named range or reference to subtotal.
  • ref2 - [optional] A named range or reference to subtotal.
Usage notes 

Use the SUBTOTAL function to get a subtotal in a list or database. SUBTOTAL has the ability to use a variety of functions when subtotaling, including AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX, and others (see table below for a complete list). By default, SUBTOTAL excludes values in rows hidden by a filter, as explained below. This makes SUBTOTAL very useful in Excel Tables.

Below are a few examples of SUBTOTAL configured to SUM, COUNT, and AVERAGE the values in a range. Notice the only difference is the value used for the function_num argument:

=SUBTOTAL(109,range) // SUM
=SUBTOTAL(103,range) // COUNT
=SUBTOTAL(101,range) // AVERAGE

Available functions

SUBTOTAL behavior is controlled by the function_num argument, which is provided as a numeric value. The table below shows available functions:

Function Include hidden Ignore hidden
COUNT 2 102
COUNTA 3 103
MAX 4 104
MIN 5 105
STDEV 7 107
STDEVP 8 108
SUM 9 109
VAR 10 110
VARP 11 111

Manually hidden values

Notice the values used for the function_num argument are "paired" (e.g. 1-101, 2-102, 3-103, ...). This is related to how SUBTOTAL deals with manually hidden rows. When function_num is between 1-11, SUBTOTAL includes cells that have been manually hidden. When function_num is between 101-111, SUBTOTAL ignores values in rows that have been manually are hidden. 

SUBTOTAL always ignores values in cells are hidden with a filter. Values in "filtered out" rows are not included, regardless of function_num.


  • When function_num is between 1-11, SUBTOTAL includes values that are hidden
  • When function_num is between 101-111, SUBTOTAL excludes values that are hidden
  • In filtered lists, SUBTOTAL always ignores values in hidden rows, regardless of function_num.
  • SUBTOTAL ignores other subtotals that exist in references are ignored to prevent double-counting
  • SUBTOTAL is designed to work with vertical data values arranged vertically. In Horizontal ranges, values in hidden columns are always included.

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