# Excel PERCENTRANK.INC Function

The Excel PERCENTRANK.INC function returns the relative rank of a value in a data set as a percentage representing the number of values less than or equal to the value. Percentile rank is commonly used as a way to interpret standing in standardized tests.

**array**- Array of data values.**x**- Value to rank.**significance**- [optional] Number of significant digits in result. Defaults to 3.

The Excel PERCENTRANK.INC returns the relative standing of a value within a data set as a percentage.

For example, a test score greater than or equal to 80% of all test scores is said to be at the 80th percentile. In this case PERCENTRANK.INC will assign a rank of .80 to the score.

In the example shown, the formula in C5 is:

=PERCENTRANK.INC(data,B5)

where "data" is the named range C5:C12.

*Note: The PERCENTRANK.INC function replaces PERCENTRANK which is now classified a "compatibility function".*

### Interpolation

When x does not exist within the array, the function interpolates a value between data points. For example, when the x value of 4.00 is passed as an argument to the function, the percentage is interpolated to the value %42.4, which lies between the percentrank of 3.3 and 4.56 which are %33.3 and %50.0 respectively.

In the graph below, solid blue dots represents x values that are contained within the input array, while the outlined blue dots are values that are interpolated.

### Inclusive vs. Exclusive

Starting with Excel 2010, the PERCENTRANK function has been replaced by two functions: PERECENTRANK.INC and PERECENTRANK.INC. The INC version represents "inclusive" behavior, and the EXC version represents "exclusive" behavior. Both formulas use the same arguments.

- Use the PERCENTRANK.EXC function to determine the percentage rank
*exclusive*of the first and last values in the array. - Use the PERCENTRANK.INC or PERCENTRANK to find the percentage rank
*inclusive*of the first and last values in the array.

The screen below shows differences with a small data set:

As the size of the input array increases, the difference between the two functions decreases. The difference between the returned percentages will never be larger than 1/(N+1), where N is the size of the input array.

### Notes

- If x does not exist in the array, PERCENTRANK.INC interpolates to find the percentage rank.
- When significance is omitted PERCENTRANK.INC returns three significant digits (0.xxx)

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