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Toggle absolute and relative references

Windows shortcut 
F4
Mac shortcut 
T

While editing a formula, this shortcut toggles cell references from relative to absolute, to partially absolute, back to relative again:

A1 --> $A$1 --> A$1-- > $A1-- > A1

This is much faster and easier than typing the $ character manually.

To convert an existing formula, enter cell edit mode, place the cursor in or next to the reference you'd like to convert, then use the shortcut.

Note: In earlier versions of Excel on the Mac, this shortcut is exclusively Command + T. In Mac Excel 365, fn + F4 also works, inline with the Windows version of Excel.

Related videos

The videos below demonstrate this shortcut.
In this video we'll look at how you can use the CHOOSE function. We also compare a formula based on CHOOSE vs. a formula based on VLOOKUP.
In this video we show you how to use an absolute address to fix a reference in a simple example about hours worked at a certain pay rate.
In this video, we'll look at how to build a 100% stacked column chart that shows the percentages in each bar.
In this lesson, we cover shortcuts you can use when building, editing, or entering formulas.
This video shows how to use VLOOKUP to merge data in two tables based on a common ID. You can even use this technique to reorder the columns you retrieve.

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