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Toggle absolute and relative references

Windows shortcut 
F4
Mac shortcut 
T

While editing a formula, this shortcut toggles cell references from relative to absolute, to partially absolute, back to relative again:

A1 --> $A$1 --> A$1-- > $A1-- > A1

This is much faster and easier than typing the $ character manually.

To convert an existing formula, enter cell edit mode, place the cursor in or next to the reference you'd like to convert, then use the shortcut.

Note: In earlier versions of Excel on the Mac, this shortcut is exclusively Command + T. In Mac Excel 365, fn + F4 also works, inline with the Windows version of Excel.

Related videos

The videos below demonstrate this shortcut.
This video shows you how to stop Excel from changing cell references when you want an exact copy of a formula in a different cell.
In this video, we'll look at how to create a pie chart in Excel. Pie charts show a "part to whole" relationship, and they work best with a limited number of categories.
In this video we show you how to use an absolute address to fix a reference in a simple example about hours worked at a certain pay rate.
In this video, we'll look at how to highlight the results of approximate match lookups with conditional formatting.
In this video, we compare formulas and pivot tables side-by-side to build the same reports to demonstrate how powerful and easy to use pivot tables are.

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