# Toggle absolute and relative references

Windows shortcut

F4

Mac shortcut

⌘T

While editing a formula, this shortcut toggles cell references from relative to absolute, to partially absolute, back to relative again:

A1 --> $A$1 --> A$1-- > $A1-- > A1

It's much faster and easier than typing $ characters manually.

To convert an existing formula, enter cell edit mode, place the cursor *in or next to* the reference you'd like to convert, then use the shortcut.

Note: in Excel 2016 for the Mac, you can also use fn + F4.

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