## Explanation

In this example, the goal is to sum the largest **n** values in a set of data after applying specific criteria. In the worksheet shown, we want to sum the three largest values, so **n** is equal to 3. At a high level, this problem breaks down into three separate steps:

- Apply criteria to select specific values
- Extract the 3 largest values
- Sum the 3 extracted values

This problem can be solved with a formula based on the FILTER function, the LARGE function, and the SUM function. For convenience, the range B5:C16 is an Excel Table named **data**. This allows the formula to use structured references.

*Note: FILTER is a newer function not available in "Legacy Excel". See below for an alternative formula that works in older versions of Excel.*

### Example formula

The final formula in cell F5 is:

```
=SUM(LARGE(FILTER(data[Values],data[Group]="A"),{1,2,3}))
```

To explain how this formula works, we'll walk through the steps listed above. This means we will be working through the formula from the inside out. This is typical of Excel formulas where one function is nested inside another.

### Apply criteria

The first step in the problem is to apply criteria to select values by group. This can be done with the FILTER function. To select values in group "A", we can use FILTER like this:

```
FILTER(data[Values],data[Group]="A")
```

In this formula *array* is provided as the **Values** column in the table, and the *include* argument provides logic to select only values in group "A". The result is a subset of the values where the group is "A", which is returned in an array like this:

```
{10;65;25;45;20;15}
```

If you are new to the FILTER function, see this video: Basic FILTER function example

### Extract 3 largest values

The next step in the problem is to extract the three largest values from the array returned by FILTER. For this, we use the LARGE function. The LARGE function is designed to return the *nth* largest value in a range. For example:

```
=LARGE(range,1) // 1st largest
=LARGE(range,2) // 2nd largest
=LARGE(range,3) // 3rd largest
```

Normally, LARGE returns just one value. However, if you supply an array constant (e.g. a constant in the form {1,2,3}) to LARGE as the second argument, *k*, LARGE will return an array of results instead of a single result. For example:

```
=LARGE(range,{1,2,3}) // largest 3 values
```

Picking up where we left off, FILTER is used to extract values in group "A". The results returned by FILTER are returned directly to the LARGE function like this:

```
LARGE({10;65;25;45;20;15},{1,2,3}) // returns {65,45,25}
```

The LARGE function then returns the 3 largest values in an array: 65, 45, 25.

### Sum largest values

The final step in the problem is to sum the values extracted by the LARGE function. This is done with the SUM function:

```
=SUM({65,45,25}) // returns 135
```

SUM returns 135 as a final result, which is the sum of the top 3 values in group A.

### Dynamic n

As **n** becomes larger, it becomes tedious to enter longer array constants like {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}, etc. To make **n** dynamic, you can use the SEQUENCE function to generate an array of sequential numbers automatically like this:

```
=SUM(LARGE(FILTER(values,criteria),SEQUENCE(n))
```

Just replace **n** with the number of largest values you want to extract:

```
=SUM(LARGE(FILTER(values,criteria),SEQUENCE(3)) // largest 3
=SUM(LARGE(FILTER(values,criteria),SEQUENCE(5)) // largest 5
```

To make the value for n easier to change, enter n in a cell on the worksheet and replace the hardcoded number above with the cell reference:

```
=SUM(LARGE(FILTER(values,criteria),SEQUENCE(A1)) // variable n
```

### Legacy Excel

In older versions of Excel that don't provide the FILTER function, you can use the IF function to "filter" data like this:

```
=SUM(LARGE(IF(data[Group]="A",data[Values]),{1,2,3}))
```

*Note: this is an array formula and must be entered with Control + Shift + Enter in Legacy Excel.*

The behavior of this formula is similar to the original formula above. The main difference is that the IF function returns values from group A when the group="A", but it returns FALSE when the group is not "A". The LARGE function receives an array from IF that looks like this:

```
{10;FALSE;65;FALSE;25;FALSE;45;FALSE;20;FALSE;15;FALSE}
```

Unlike the FILTER function, which returned just the six values associated with group A, IF returns an array that includes *twelve* results, one for each value in the original data. However, because LARGE is programmed to *automatically* ignore the logical values TRUE and FALSE, the result from LARGE, {65,45,25}, is the same as before and the final result is correct:

```
=SUM({65,45,25}) // returns 135
```