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Excel COMPLEX Function

Excel COMPLEX function

The Excel COMPLEX function creates a complex number with given real and imaginary coefficients. COMPLEX returns a text result in the form x + yi or x + yj.

Convert coefficients to complex number
Return value 
Complex number as text
=COMPLEX (real_num, i_num, [suffix])
  • real_num - The real number.
  • i_num - The imaginary number.
  • suffix - [optional] The suffix, either "i" or "j".
Usage notes 

A complex number has two parts: a real number and an imaginary number. The COMPLEX function converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj, where x represents the real number and y represents the imaginary number. For example:

=COMPLEX(5,3) // returns 5+3i

To use the "j" instead of "i":

=COMPLEX(5,3,"j") // returns 5+3j

In the example shown, the formula in E6 is:



  1. If omitted, suffix defaults to "i".
  2. suffix must be lowercase "i" or "j"; other values result in a #VALUE error.
  3. If real_num or i_num are nonnumeric, COMPLEX returns the #VALUE! error.

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