An absolute reference in Excel refers to a reference that is "locked" so that rows and columns won't change when copied. Unlike a relative reference, an absolute reference refers to an actual fixed location on a worksheet.
To create an absolute reference in Excel, add a dollar sign before the row and column. For example, an absolute reference to A1 looks like this:
An absolute reference for the range A1:A10 looks like this:
In the example shown, the formula in D5 will change like this when copied down column D:
Note that the absolute reference to C2, which hold the hourly rate does not change, while the reference to hours in C5 changes with each new row.
A relative reference in Excel is a pointer to a cell or range of cells. For example, a relative reference to cell A1 looks like this: = A1 A relative addresses will change when copied to other location in a worksheet because it describes the "offset...
An mixed reference in Excel is a reference where part of the reference is absolute and part is relative. For example, the following references have both relative and absolute components: = $A1 // column locked = A$1 // row locked = $A$1:A2 // first...
A named range is one or more cells that have been given a name. Using named ranges can make formulas easier to read and understand. They also provide simple navigation via the Name Box . In the example, the formula in F6 is: = MAX ( sales ) where "...