# Score quiz answers with key

=SUM(--(answers=key))

To score a quiz and count correct and incorrect answers based on an answer key, you can use a basic array formula. In the example shown, the formula in I7, copied down, is:

=SUM(--(C7:G7=key))

where **key** is the named range C4:G4.

*Note: This is an array formula. In Excel 365, enter normally. In older versions of Excel, you must enter with control + shift + enter.*

This formula uses the named range **key** (C4:G4) for convenience only. Without the named range, you'll want to use an absolute reference so the formula can be copied.

In cell I7, we have this formula:

=SUM(--(C7:G7=key))

working from the inside-out, this expression is evaluated first:

C7:G7=key // compare answers to key

The result is an array of TRUE FALSE values like this:

{TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE}

TRUE values indicate a correct answer, FALSE values indicate an incorrect answer.

To coerce the TRUE and FALSE values to numbers, we use a double negative:

--({TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE}) // get 1's and 0's

The is an array of 1's and 0's delivered directly to the SUM function:

=SUM({1,1,1,0,1}) // sum correct

The SUM function then returns the final result, 4.

### Incorrect answers

The formula in J7 counts incorrect answers in almost the same way:

=SUM(--(C7:G7<>key))

The only difference is that we are now using the not equal to (<>) logical operator:

### Percent correct

The formula in K7 calculates the percentage of correct answers like this:

=I7/COUNTA(key) // divide correct by total

Cell I7 already contains the count of correct answers. This is divided by the total count of quiz answers, which is calculated with the COUNTA function:

COUNTA(key) // count total

The result is formatted with the percentage number format.

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