# Risk Matrix Example

To set up a simple risk matrix, you can use a formula based on INDEX and MATCH. In the example shown, the formula in J7 is:

Where "impact" is the named range J6, and "certainty" is the named range J5

### Context

A risk matrix is used for risk assessment. One axis is used to assign the probability of a particular risk and the other axis is used to assign consequence or severity. A risk matrix can a useful to rank the potential impact of a particular event, decision, or risk.

In the example shown, the values inside the matrix are the result of multiplying certainty by impact, on a 5-point scale. This is a purely arbitrary calculation to give each cell in the table a unique value.

### How the formula works

At the core, we are using the INDEX function to retrieve the value at a given row or column number like this:

=INDEX(C5:G9,row,column)

The range C5:C9 defines the matrix values. What's left is to figure out the correct row and column numbers, and for that we use the MATCH function. To get a row number for INDEX (the impact), we use:

MATCH(impact,B5:B9,0)

To get a column number for INDEX (the impact), we use:

MATCH(certainty,C4:G4,0)

In both cases, MATCH is set up to perform an exact match. When certainty is "possible" and impact is "major" MATCH calculates row and column numbers as follows:

=INDEX(C5:G9,4,3)

The INDEX function then returns the value at the forth row and third column, 12.

For a more detailed explanation of how to use INDEX and MATCH, see this article.

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