## Explanation

The COUNTIFS function takes one or more criteria, entered as range/criteria pairs. In this example, the first range/criteria pair is:

```
B5:B11,">="&E5
```

Matching any time greater than or equal to the time E5 (5:00).

The second range/criteria pair is:

```
B5:B11,"<"&E6
```

Matching any time less than the time in E6 (6:30).

### With hard-coded values

The formula in E7 could be written with hard-coded time values as follows:

```
=COUNTIFS(B5:B11,">=5:00",B5:B11,"<6:30")
```

Excel translates a string like "5:00" into the correct numeric time value.

### With the TIME function

The formula in E7 could be written with the TIME function like this:

```
=COUNTIFS(B5:B11,">="&TIME(5,0,0),B5:B11,"<"&TIME(6,30,0))
```

The TIME function provides a simple way to assemble a valid time using discreet hour, minute, and second values.