The Excel ROMAN function converts a number to a Roman numeral as text. For example, the formula =ROMAN(4) returns IV.


Converts numbers to Roman numerals

Return value 

A Roman numeral in text


  • number - Number (in Arabic numeral) you want to convert to Roman numeral.
  • form - [optional] The type of Roman numeral you want.

How to use 

The ROMAN function converts a number to a Roman numeral. For example:

=ROMAN(4) // returns "IV"
=ROMAN(9) // returns "IX"
=ROMAN(99) // returns "XCIX"
=ROMAN(100) // returns "C"

ROMAN takes two arguments: number and form. Number should be a whole number between 1 and 3999. The form argument controls the convention used for Roman numbers. The argument is optional and the default is zero (0), which results in classic non-abbreviated Roman numbers. Other possible values are 1-4, which specify progressively more concise output. For example:

=ROMAN(1999,0) // returns "MCMXCIX"
=ROMAN(1999,2) // returns "MXMIX"
=ROMAN(1999,4) // returns "MIM"

See more form samples below.

Roman numbers

The table below lists available Roman numbers with their equivalent Arabic number value.

Symbol Value
I 1
V 5
X 10
L 50
C 100
D 500
M 1000

The ROMAN function converts Arabic numbers to Roman numbers. Use the ARABIC function to convert Roman numbers to Arabic numbers.

Abbreviated syntax

The ROMAN function can output Roman numbers in a more abbreviated syntax, controlled with the form argument. The screen below shows how different values for form affect output.

ROMAN function form options example


  • Number should be a positive number between 1 and 3999.
  • Number should be a whole number; decimal values are ignored.
  • If number is negative or out of range, ROMAN returns #VALUE!
  • The ROMAN function performs the opposite conversion as the ARABIC function.
  • The form argument controls Roman numeral abbreviation. Valid inputs are 0-4.
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Dave Bruns

Hi - I'm Dave Bruns, and I run Exceljet with my wife, Lisa. Our goal is to help you work faster in Excel. We create short videos, and clear examples of formulas, functions, pivot tables, conditional formatting, and charts.